Researchers Interview with Anna Kinde (CEU)

In 2018, Anna Kinde received an MA in Late Antique, Medieval and Early Modern studies at CEU, and wrote her thesis about the use of ambulatories in fourteenth-century Central European cathedrals. Her present research continues this theme and focuses on the use of the eastern end of late Medieval cathedrals in Central Europe. We talked with her about her research.
Click here to listen to the hole interview: http://ceumedievalradiopodcast.ceu.hu/?name=2021-09-08_new_faces_-_new_ideas_anna_kinde_2021_03_withoutmusic.mp3

Networks – Cooperation – Rivalry Conference

The Fourth Biennial Conference of the Medieval Central Europe Research Network
(MECERN)
Online organized by the University of Gdańsk

7–9 April 2021

The conference is open to registered participants. To get information about the registration and get access to the sessions, please send a message to mecerngdansk21@gmail.com. The online conference will be held in Microsoft Teams. In case of any technical difficulty please write also to the above-mentioned email address.

Medieval and Neo-Latin Studies

New Ph.D. programme implemented in collaboration between the Institute of Greek and Latin Studies of the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University
and the Institute of Philosophy of the Czech Academy of Sciences

Application deadline is 30 April 2021, admission examinations take place on 14-16 June 2021.

Fellowship

Every student accepted for regular Ph.D program receives a fellowship of 13,000 CZK/month and may apply for further research and travel support and take part in paid research grants. This particular program offers also paid internships at the Academy of Sciences (see below).

Profile of the programme

The Ph.D. programme investigates the history of Latin literature and European culture that used Latin as its means of expression during the period between the fall of Rome, through transformation of the cultural legacy of antiquity during the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and the Baroque, and all the way into its rebirth into a subject of scientific investigation and part of cultural life of modern European nations. Latin texts are approached from the perspective of linguistics, palaeography, codicology, literary science, and cultural history, with special emphasis on developments in the Czech Lands. This programme is interdisciplinary and touches upon a number of other areas, including intellectual history, history of religion, and history of books. Doctoral students investigate the theoretical and practical aspects of publication of Latin texts written during the period this programme covers and familiarise themselves with the possibilities of digital humanities. This programme can be taken in Czech or in English. For further information, contact the program guarantor, Lucie Dolezalovâ lucie.dolezalova@ff.cuni.cz

Conditions of admission into the programme

Admission process into this doctoral programme follows the internal regulations of the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University. Candidates must meet, among others, the following conditions:

  • •    Graduation from a master’s programme in Medieval (Latin) Studies or another area of humanities, whereby candidates must demonstrate their knowledge of Latin and of the history of Latin literature.
  • •    Candidates ought to demonstrate suitability for scientific work, professional focus, and good orientation in specialised literature relevant to subjects of this programme. Knowledge of two major modern languages is viewed as an advantage.
  • •    Each candidate must present a project of dissertation thesis, a structured CV, a list of specialised books, and an overview of previous academic activities in accordance with a list of demands defined by the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University (available at phd-programmes: application-and- admission).

Ph.D. internships at the Institute of Philosophy of the CAS

Persons interested in taking the Latin Medieval and Neo-Latin Studies under the supervision of researchers of the Institute of Philosophy may apply for a paid internship at the Institute of Philosophy of the CAS. These internships are granted always for one year with a possibility of extension. Interns actively participate in research activities of the department they select and in other activities of the Institute of Philosophy. It is assumed that candidates will choose a dissertation subject relevant to projects currently conducted at the Institute of Philosophy:

  • •    For the area of Medieval Latin studies (supervisors from the Centre for Medieval Studies): analysis of sources reflecting the religious, cultural, and intellectual diversity of Central Europe in Late Middle Ages, conflicts stemming from this diversity and attempts at their solution;

• For the area of neo-Latin studies (supervisors from the Department of Comenius Studies and Early Modern Intellectual History): analysis of various communication media and textual legacy of Early Modern ‘republic of scholars’, including correspondence and various genres of printed production, with emphasis on relations between Latin and vernacular production.

In case you are interested in a Ph.D. internship at the Institute of Philosophy, contact Pavel Soukup (soukup@flu.cas.cz), coordinator of applications for the joint doctoral programme on behalf of the Institute of Philosophy. It is essential that you do so sufficiently in advance of application deadline. Application for doctoral internship should be accompanied by a letter of motivation specifying your idea regarding your work at the Institute of Philosophy and explaining the link between your dissertation thesis and research undertaken at the relevant department or centre. Selected candidates will be, on the day of admission examination, invited for a brief interview at the Institute of Philosophy.

Anyone interested in the program should contact their potential supervisor.

Supervisors at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague

Iva Adámková

I lead dissertations focused on medieval Latin literature (e.g. textual analysis, contextualization, translation). I work on monastic texts, hagiography, texts connected to medieval art. Contact: iva.adamkova@ ff.cuni.cz

Lucie Doležalová

I will happily supervise dissertations on medieval literature and manuscripts. Usual dissertation is an edition an analysis of a so far unedited text, or textual transmission and reception of a particular text. I am interested in obscure texts, but also memory, mnemonic aids, library history, Bible reception, parody, proverbs and digital humanities. Contact: lucie.dolezalova@ff.cuni.cz

Supervisor from the Faculty of Arts, University of Ostrava

Anna Pumprová

I focus on analysis of medieval Latin texts, especially from 12th-14th century Bohemia. I especially enjoy monastic writing – historiography, homiletics, biblical exegesis (commentary of the Song of Songs), or spiritual lyrics. I will happily supervise critical editions, literary-historical studies or translations of a text, e.g. from the Zbraslav monastery, a work of Jan of Jenstejn, ort he sermon collection of Robert of Olomouc. Contact: anna.pumprova@osu.cz.

Supervisors from the Institute of Philosophy, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Centre for Classical Studies

Petr Kitzler

My main focus of interest is Late Classical and Early Christian literature written in Latin (including Czech translations), hagiographies, and intellectual currents in Early Church. Dissertations could therefore focus on any of the following subjects:

  1. 1)     Graeco-Roman cultural and intellectual context of Early Christian literature (e.g. the influence of Classical rhetoric or contemporary philosophical movements) and its literary and intellectual stylisation and reception;
  2. 2)     Latin apologists, especially Tertullian of Carthage;
  3. 3)     Hagiographic literature in Latin (vitae, acta, and passiones martyrum), its diversity in terms of genres, development, and gradual adaptation and reinterpretation in reaction to changing cultural and intellectual climate;
  4. 4)     Latin language in early Christian texts and changes in its semantics in reaction to new religious and cultural contexts;
  5. 5)     Translation of a Latin-written early Christian text with detailed commentary and an introductory study.

Barbora Kocánová

I would be happy to supervise theses in Middle Latin philology and educational/instructional literature on subjects such as:

  1. 1)     Various topics from Middle Latin lexicography and terminology. Theses could focus on e.g. analysis of some lexicographic text, including its edition, or characterisation and analysis of changes within some interesting terminological group;
  2. 2)     Subjects from educational medieval Latin literature. Such theses could deal with, for example, analysis and edition of some Bohemical source, the history of some natural science in the Middle Ages, or sources of academic provenance (e.g. texts based on Prague quodlibets);
  3. 3)     Topics related to the reception of Aristotle in the Middle Ages.

Pavel Nývlt (Centre for Classical Studies)

Dissertation theses I could supervise should focus on Latin Bohemical literature, especially historiography or dictionaries, eventual Latin vocabulary in the Middle Ages. The following are some suggestions of suitable subjects:

  1. 1)     Location of the work in time and space and construction of the person of narrator in select Bohemical chronicles;
  2. 2)     The importance of Velesin’s dictionary for textual criticism of Claretus’s Glossarius;
  3. 3)     Specific features of vocabulary of select Latin Bohemical texts with focus on, e.g., neologisms, occasionalisms, synonyms, or the use of particular works that lack a full semantic meaning.

Centre for Medieval Studies

Pavlína Cermanová

Supervision of dissertations in the area of intellectual history of the Middle Ages with focus on intellectual links and communication channels between centres of education in Central Europe. Theses could also deal with medieval apocalyptic thinking, its sources, spread, and impact on society. Possible subjects include the following:

  1. 1)     Medieval apocalyptic and prophetic literature, both in the vernacular and in Latin;
  2. 2)     Subjects related to the sources, manifestations, and identification strategies of medieval religious radicalism;
  3. 3)     Spread of writings on natural philosophy by manuscripts and their further reception; reconstruction of communication channels among scholars and other ways of sharing texts based on the above;
  4. 4)      Medieval alchemy, its records in writing, alchemistic constructs.

Dušan Coufal

I would be happy to take on doctoral projects on subjects from late medieval intellectual and ecclesiastical history, especially such that also touch upon contemporary political and social events. I feel especially close to work focused on the study of Latin manuscripts, eventually their publication in print. I offer supervision of theses on the following areas:

  1. 1)     Theological production of Central European universities, especially the Prague university (tractates, exegetical commentaries, testimonials);
  2. 2)     The history and written legacy of fifteenth-century councils, especially the Council of Basel;
  3. 3)     Biographies and social activities of university masters;
  4. 4)     Hussite and anti-Hussite thought;
  5. 5)     Controversies surrounding the reception of John Wyclef’s theological and political thought in Bohemia.

Pavel Soukup (Centre for Medieval Studies)

I would be happy to supervise doctoral theses on subjects from the intellectual and cultural history of Late Middle Ages with focus on Central Europe. I feel particularly attracted to the subject of heresies, especially Hussitism, as well as controversial theology and preaching. Given this focus, I would consider the following subjects of theses especially suitable:

  1. 1)     Analysis of handwritten collections of sermons with focus on their structure, the origin of particular pieces, and relations between the text and spoken rendition (for instance, the mystery of Hus’s sermones de primo anno, the so-called postil of Hus’s representatives from 1413, or collections of sermons from the period of formation of the Utraquist Church);
  2. 2)     Investigation of transmission and transformation of Latin texts in their intellectual and social context. Particular topics in this area include the vernacular reception of Wyclef’s Latin writings (comparison of Middle English and Old Czech adaptations); movements of people and texts between medieval universities using Prague and Leipzig as an example; the use and production of instructional texts for preachers in the Czech Lands (artes praedicandi, distinctiones, model sermons);
  3. 3)     An overview of treatment of particular questions in late medieval discussions, e.g. arguments against the freedom of speech in polemics with heresies; Czech ecclesiology during the period of legal coexistence of different Christian denominations; analysis and edition of a selected tractate from the area of anti-Hussite polemics.

Department of Comenius Studies and Early Modern Intellectual History

Marcela Slavíková

I would be happy to supervise dissertations focused on Bohemical literature in Early Modern Era, on subjects such as:

  1. 1)     Latin humanist poetry connected with activities of the Prague university prior to 1622, including poetry written in Classical Greek in the context of contemporary Latin production;
  2. 2)     Early Modern Bohemical editions of Classical and humanistic texts, e.g. school editions published for the needs of the university in Leipzig in late fifteenth and early sixteenth century;
  3. 3)     Latin correspondence of John Amos Comenius from editor’s perspective; preparation of a critical edition of a humanist Latin text based on work with manuscripts and old prints.

Lucie Storchova

Supervision of dissertations in the field of humanist literature in the Czech Lands and Central Europe in general, as well as intellectual history of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century. Theses could deal with, for instance, the following subjects:

  1. 1)     Literature as part of cultural exchange between Central Europe and other regions, including non-European ones;
  2. 2)     Humanistic literature as part of scholarly self-representation and communication of scholars in the sixteenth century (poetry, correspondence, etc.);
  3. 3)     Travel literature and representation of otherness during the period in question;
  4. 4)     Neo-Latin and vernacular historiography in the sixteenth century;
  5. 5)     Neo-Latin and vernacular literature through the prism of gender studies and queer studies.

Vladimír Urbánek (Department of Comenius Studies)

Supervision of dissertations in the area of intellectual history of Early Modern Era with focus on Bohemical subjects within a wider European context. Subjects may include:

  1. 1)     Research of networks of correspondence of Early Modern ‘republic of scholars’, e.g. subject analysis of correspondence of Comenius and his circle; popularity and changes of meaning of terms such as pansophia (using digital humanities); exile as a subject of scholarly correspondence;
  2. 2)     Prophesy as a literary genre and medium of communication in the seventeenth century: prophesies, visions, and revelations as a literary genre and their reception by readers; the relationship between vernacular and Latin versions of prophesies published by Comenius; textual transmission of prophesies from a vernacular manuscript, through a printed Latin version, and all the way to re-contextualisation in collections of prophesies.
  3. 3)     The influence of Early Modern neo-stoicism in Central European environment, e.g. a comparison of Lipsius’s De constantia and its contemporary translations (including Comenius’s Czech paraphrase in Truchlivy).

Department for the Study of Ancient and Medieval Thought

Pavel Blažek

I would be happy to supervise doctoral theses on subjects from late medieval philosophy and theology and, more generally, topics from the intellectual history of Late Medieval Era. Theses could focus on for instance the following subjects:

  1. 1)     Medieval Aristotelianism and late medieval reception of Aristotle. Particular topics include the use of Aristotle in medieval sacramental theology; reception and adaptation of Aristotle’s theories on the genesis of community, on virtues, and on friendship in medieval commentaries on the Politics and/or Nicomachean Ethics; Aristotelianism in medieval political discourses (e.g. in De regimine principum by Aegidius Romanus); transmission and adaptation of various medieval pseudo-Aristotelian writings;
  2. 2)     Family, marriage, and family relations in medieval philosophical, theological, and legal literature. Particular subjects include: relations between men and women or children and parents in medieval commentaries on the Politics, Nicomachean Ethics, and pseudo­Aristotelian Ethics; the concept of childhood and youth in medieval commentaries on the Rhetoric; ideals of Christian upbringing in medieval instructive texts on the upbringing of children (Vincent of Beauvais, Jean Gerson, etc.); on arranging marriage, inseparability of marriage, marital sexuality, and marriage of Mary and Joseph in medieval commentaries on the Sentences by Peter of Lombardy;
  3. 3)     Critical editions of previously unpublished medieval philosophical and theological writings.

International conference: The Mongol Invasion of Hungary and Its Eurasian Context

The Mongol Invasion of Hungary and Its Eurasian Context project cordially invites you to the international workshop

The Mongols in Central Europe: The Profile and Impact of their Thirteenth-Century Invasions

the conference will be broadcast on Zoom
26 November https://us02web.zoom.us/j/89821700042…
Meeting ID: 898 2170 0042
Passcode: 18KY1P
27 November:
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/89698677998?pwd=THljQWYxNHIrVEZLWGllck54ZytLZz09 Meeting ID: 896 9867 7998 Passcode: gR1m9B

Program:
26 November 2020

12:30–12:45 Balázs Nagy: Welcome

12:45–13:50 Moderator: István Vásáry
Greetings of Batbayar Zeneemyadar, Ambassador of Mongolia to Hungary
Balázs Nagy: The Mongol Invasion of Hungary and its Central European Context
Attila Bárány: The Response of the West to the Mongol Invasion: 1241-1270

13:50–14:00 Coffee break

14:00–15:15 Moderator: Christopher P. Atwood
Stephen Pow: The Historicity of Ivo of Narbonne’s Account of a Mongol Attack on “Neustat”
Konstantin Golev: Crime and Punishment: The Mongol Invasion, the Cuman-Qïpchaq Refugees and the Second Bulgarian Empire
Dorottya Uhrin: Beheading Among Nomads

13:50–14:00 Coffee break

15:30–16:45 Moderator: Konstantin Golev
Adam Lubocki: Mongol Invasion of Hungary
in the Light of Polish Medieval Sources
Tomaš Somer: Sources on the Mongol Invasion of the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1241
Matthew Coulter: Patterns of Communication during the 1241 Mongol Invasion: Insights from the Ottobeuren Letter Collection

16:45–17:00 Coffee break

17:00–18:00 Moderator: István Vásáry

Keynote lecture: Christopher P. Atwood: Mongolian Sources on the Great Western Expedition: Some Analytical Comments

27 November 2020

12:30–13:45 Moderator: Alexander Nikolov
Mirko Sardelić: “Quasi per aerem volans”:
The Mongols on the Adriatic Coast (AD 1242)
Aleksandar Uzelac: The Kingdom of Hungary and Ulus of Nogai: The Contest for Regional Supremacy at the End of the Thirteenth Century
Ágnes Birtalan: Hungarian Oral Narratives (Hung. népmonda) about the Mongolian Campaign

13:45–14:00 Coffee break

14:00–15:15 Moderator: Beatrix Romhányi
Zsuzsanna Papp Reed: Inscribing the Mongol Invasion into History: The Chronica Majora and Beyond
Alexander Nikolov: From the Pontic Steppes to Anatolia: The Cuman Refugees from the “Mongol Storm” between 1237 and 1242Ning Ya: Should the Papal Envoys Bring Gifts for the Mongols? The Role of Polish and Russian Intelligence Information in the Mission of John of Plano Carpini Compared to that of Ascelin of Lombardy

15:15–15:30 Coffee break

15:30–16:45 Moderator: Mirko Sardelić
Zsolt Pinke: Long-Term Eco-historical Studies for the Wetlands of the Great Hungarian Plain in the Context of the Mongol Invasion
József Laszlovszky: New Archaeological Finds and their Interpretation in the Context of the Mongol Invasion of Hungary
Michal Holeščák: Mongol Invasion of 1241-1242 North of the Danube: Orda Khan´s Trail to Esztergom

16:45–17:00 Coffee break

17:00–18:10 Moderator: József Laszlovszky
Beatrix Romhányi: Traces of the Mongol Invasion in the Settlement Network of the Kingdom of Hungary: Questions, Answers and Doubts
Béla Zsolt Szakács: The Mongol Invasion and the Early Church Architecture in the Szepes/Spiš/Zips Region
Jack Wilson: The Mongols and the Internet: Online Outreach on the Chinggisid Empire, 2018-2020

18:10–18:25 Conclusions and farewell

https://www.facebook.com/events/362561291500347

MECERN mourns the passing of Professor M. János Bak (1929-2020)

MECERN mourns the passing of Professor János Bak (1929-2020), co-founder and intellectual inspirer of our Network. We commemorate him with Professor Gábor Klaniczay’s obituary published on the website of the Department of Medieval Studies at CEU.

 

János M. Bak

(1929-2020)

 

János M. Bak, founding member and Professor Emeritus of CEU Department of Medieval Studies has passed away on 18 June, at the age of 91. Until the last moment of his life, he was an engaged scholar, an authoritative and caring professor, an indefatigable worker for an international cooperation for the advancement of learning and the broadening of the ‘Republic of Letters’. When mourning and remembering him, let us recall a few things of his rich, adventurous, life – the Festschrift he received from us when he was 70, was entitled The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways The adventures started towards the end of World War II, when he had to survive as a teenager the Holocaust, with tricks and hiding in Arrow-Cross dominated Budapest. Subsequently, after a brief period of enthusiastic conversion to Marxism, he quickly got disillusioned from the unfolding Stalinist regime, and he became an active participant in the 1956 revolution. At its defeat he left Hungary and earned a medieval studies doctorate in Göttingen, as a pupil of Percy Ernst Schramm. As a postgraduate, he spent two years in Oxford, then worked at the University of Marburg, and published a much-cited monograph on ‘Kingdom and estates in late medieval Hungary’. In 1966 he moved to the US and subsequently to Canada, he became professor at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. As a member of the world-wide community of 1956 émigré intellectuals, he was very active in supporting Hungarian colleagues with books, invitations, scholarships, publication opportunities. At the same time, he became a major organizer in international medieval studies. After some years of investment into the history of ‘East-Central Europe’, and ‘peasant studies’, in the 1980s he organized Majestas, a scholarly association for the study of rulership, which functioned for two decades, organized many successful conferences and published a review with the same name.

When he retired as Professor Emeritus from Vancouver in 1993, it was not for having a rest, but for joining a new, ever-more demanding academic adventure: building a Department of Medieval Studies at the recently founded CEU in Budapest. He brought home his world-wide network and made the largest contribution in turning our department a thriving new center in this field. And this was not only thanks to his high-class German and American experience, but above all thanks to his passionate engagement with the wonderful, passionate, enthusiastic international group of our graduate students. Like probably all other departments in CEU, our seminars became fascinating scholarly workshops combining hidden treasures of local knowledge with high standards of cutting-edge international scholarship. And, in all this, János was a lively, critical, once funny and cheerful, other times nervous and grumpy participant, sometimes scaring students to death with angry explosions, but then giving them due respect, fatherly protection and friendly encouragement – multiple generations of students are weeping now over this departure. The efficient and warmly human impact on the formation of future scholars was paired by his tireless organizational drive: after Majestas he initiated research projects on the comparative history of medieval nobility, on the ‘uses and abuses’ of the Middle Ages, on source-repertory handbooks.  He started a bilingual source edition series entitled Central European Medieval Texts (11 volumes at CEU Press), he published in 5 volumes the ‘Laws of Medieval Hungary’. He retired form CEU as Professor Emeritus in 2007, but he kept being active: he played a key role in the foundation of MECERN, Medieval Central European Network in 2013 – he corrected the proofs of his chapter in a new OUP Handbook on Medieval Central Europe last week, a few days before his death. He had several injuries during the past years, he walked with a stick, but he took the effort, until this winter, to come to CEU for listening to the MA or PhD defenses of his students, or to hear the public lectures of his younger colleagues or his friends, colleagues from the world-wide company. We were exceptionally fortunate to have him as a friend and a colleague for three decades, his departure is a great loss for us, for CEU and for medievalist scholarship around the world.

To conclude this obituary let me quote the words of our rector, Michael Ignatieff: “I knew Janos for 40 years, as a scholar, friend, bon vivant, intellectual provocateur. He embodied the spirit of CEU at its best: morally serious, intellectually irreverent, and fiercely loyal to ideals. We will all miss him.”

And another word by Patrick Geary: “May his memory be a blessing for us all”

 

Gábor Klaniczay

 

DRMH online Preface

 

 

The Laws of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary

Decreta regni mediaevalis Hungariae

Online edition

Preface

The present edition is a revised, up-dated, and re-worked version of the five printed volumes of the The Laws of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Decreta regni mediaevalis Hungariae, [DRMH] published between 1989 and 2012. The initiator of that project was Charles Schalcks, Jr., Publisher, a tireless servant of Slavic and East European studies, single-handed editor and publisher of several books and many seminal periodicals. On the counsel of Peter Hidas from Montréal, who was to be General Editor of all the laws of Hungary, he had approached Prof. György Bónis (1914–1985) to prepare a bi-lingual edition of the medieval laws of Hungary that were to be part of a major editorial plan of publishing all the laws of Central and Eastern Europe with English translations.[1] Bónis, in turn, invited James Ross Sweeney (1940–2011) of Penn State University, who then asked the assistance of the present editor, at that time at the University of British Columbia, who finally remained with the project to its very end. The first volume (1000–1300) appeared in 1989 (with a second, revised ed. in 1998); the second (1301–1458), co-edited with the leading Hungarian medievalist of the time, Pál Engel (1938–2001) and the Roman legal scholar Paul B. Harvey Jr. (1945–2014) of Penn State, came out in 1992. The volume of the laws of King Matthias I Corvinus (1458–90) was edited with the cooperation of Paul Harvey and Leslie S. Domonkos, then at Youngstown State University, and published in 1996. For the legislation of the Jagiellonian age, including the great collection of customary law, the Tripartitum, the editor was joined by Martyn Rady of UCL SEES, Peter Banyó of CEU Budapest, and Zsolt Hunyadi from Szeged University (and profited from the counsel of András Kubinyi, 1929–2007), so that the project could be completed by 2012. In the course of these decades a great number of colleagues, faculty and students alike, from the editors’ own universities and elsewhere assisted the editors; financial aid from their home universities and several foundations was helpful in preparing the printed volumes. Thanks are due to all of these persons and institutions, duly listed in the prefaces to the printed volumes of DRMH 1–5.

 

1        Selection of texts

In principle, this edition intends to present all surviving texts of legal force for the entire kingdom of Hungary in their time (“statutory law” and the major source of customary law) from its foundation in 1000 AD to its end at the battle of Mohács, 1526. No such collection exists, and, considering the rather chequered history of these text, cannot be easily constructed. Besides, the exact definition of “law” (decreta) is open for discussion.[2] The editors have, therefore, made reasonable selections for every period, based on the available resources; they are confident that this edition represents the essentially complete corpus of what were legally binding rules in the kingdom across these five centuries. Their point of departure was the collection of the hand- or typewritten transcripts of Ferenc Döry (1875–1960), who spent decades planning to edit a complete critical collection of medieval laws, but did not live to see it published. His work was acquired by György Bónis, who shared it with the editors of DRMH, then it went into the possession of Géza Érszegi, and is now deposited in the Hungarian National Archives.

 

1.1     The laws from 1000 to 1301

There is no generally accepted canon for the texts of Árpádian legislation. Neither the choice of legislative documents nor their authentic texts have yet been established through a critical edition. In the absence of a consensus, legal scholars have been free to shape the contents of printed collections in accordance with different principles. In the Hungarian tradition, the Codex Juris Hungarici (CJH)[3] represents a minimalist principle, for it contains only the “books” of Stephen, Ladislas, and Coloman, and the Golden Bull of Andrew II of 1222. The manuscript collections used by the first editors of the CJH did not contain later ones.[4] At the other extreme, Stephen Endlicher included more than eighty pieces in his collection of “laws,” augmenting—theoretically speaking, not without reason—the “law books” with a number of charters of privileges for towns, territories, and other communities.[5] The present edition represents a compromise between these two, combining legal tradition and modern view of legal history. Almost all of what had been part of the CJH for centuries has been included, but now augmented by additional texts. In contrast to the CJH, we have dropped the Institutio Morum “of St. Stephen” (called there the first book of his laws). A. Kollar, as early as the eighteenth century, demonstrated that this “speculum pincipum” does not belong into a book of laws.[6] On the other hand, certain texts of historical significance, not strictly laws or decreta but rather important privileges, discovered only in the eighteenth century, are included here: besides the Golden Bull of 1222, also its 1231 renewal and a later, shorter version of 1267 for a wider circle of freemen. The coronation decree of Andrew III and the parliamentary decretum of 1298 can be regarded as the earliest true pieces of legislation and although missing from the CJH, they are included here. In the printed version, certain texts issued in what was called “synods” had been relegated into an Appendix. That we have revised for the present edition: the statutes of the synods of Szabolcs (1092)–also styled “Book I of King Ladislas’ Laws”–and “the synod of Esztergom” as well as the undated canons of other early twelfth-century synods belong to this group. Together with the statute of Coloman concerning the Jews—as part of this rare group of early “laws”—have been included. However, the so-called “Second Cuman Law” dated to 1279, has been now convincingly argued to be a modern forgery, based partially on an authentic royal charter of that year.[7] While in the printed version the editors’ doubts about its authenticity were already noted, we have now left it out altogether. Finally, an undated collection of legal norms, formerly believed to have originated in the last years of the thirteenth century, was also included in the Appendix as “Compliatio c. 1300.” Containing significant legal measures (although irregular in form), it was seen as the last piece of legislation extant from the Árpádian age. It has now been demonstrated that it originates most likely from a century or so later.[8] Its date cannot be ascertained, the only firm ante quem is the year 1440, when it was presented to King Wladislas I, copied into a booklet; we call it therefore “Compilatio ante 1440”.

With the exception of the early medieval collections (“books”), privileges and decrees are referred to throughout by the date of their issue, as closely as known.

 

1.2     The laws between 1301 and 1490

The decreta of the Angevin, Luxembourg and Corvinian age have been critically edited—based on Döry’s manuscripts—in two volumes: György Bónis and Vera Bácskai Decreta regni Hungariae. Gesetze and Verordnungen Ungarns 1301–1457 (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1976), in the series Publicationes Archivi Nationalis Hungariae II, Fontes vol. 11 [DRH]; and György Bónis with Géza Érszegi and Zsuzsanna Teke, Decreta regni Hungariae. Gesetze and Verordnungen Ungarns 1458–1490 (ibid., 1989), same series, vol. 19 [DRH Matth]. The editors of DRMH essentially followed their choices, but did not include the fragmentary texts and those that are known only by reference (deperdita); they can be consulted in the two volumes mentioned above. An exception is the decree of 1411, for which a text, not utilized in previous editions, was recently discovered. Thanks to the collegial advice of Dr. Iván Borsa of the Hungarian National Archives, the editors were able to include the reading of this version, as it seems to contain the oldest text. As mentioned above, the “Compilatio ante 1440” is now placed in its chronological context here. The editors yielded to tradition and included one of the royal charters on a cameral contract from 1342, while omitting the others printed in DRH. Three other texts, not decreta proper, but relevant for legal and political development have also been retained: the royal propositions of 1415/7 and of 1432/3, and a Register from 1467. In the light of recent research, it is clear that the so-called Palatinal Articles, earlier believed to have been issued in 1457 or 1458, are of much later date.[9] They have, therefore, been dropped.

1.3     The laws and dietal decisions between 1490 and 1526

The decreta of these decades were never edited in any critical version. For this period, the editors were forced to give up the principle of translating and printing the entire corpus of statutory law. The bulk of legal documents emanating from the period between 1490 and 1526 proved to be too large to handle successfully. As far as we know, during these decades more than forty diets were held, and even though the decisions of many are lost, under King Wladislas II seven (or six) decreta were issued amounting altogether to some four hundred articles (paragraphs); from the ten years of King Louis II’s reign, more than three hundred articles have survived. Besides, many of the texts repeat more or less verbatim provisions of earlier decreta and often contain matters that were merely ephemeral administrative issues. One may even question whether all the decisions of diets—some not approved by the king, others not accepted by the estates—deserve at all the name of “legislation” in the sense that they contain legal norms binding for all subjects of the kingdom. This is especially true for the articles issued at the “tumultuous diets” of the last decade of the medieval kingdom under Louis II. These texts are less legal monuments than political programs, designed for the moment and as part of the propaganda war waged between the different factions. We identify them rather as dietal decisions. Lacking up-to-date, document based studies for the period, the context and background of the texts can be indicated only in general outlines. These will have to be augmented by new research, but at least the surviving texts are worth to be made accessible.

The editors, therefore, made a few compromises for the texts of the Jagiellonian Age. Almost all original surviving Latin texts—based on Döry’s transcription, hitherto unpublished—are included in the edition, but not all are translated and annotated. Actually, the CJH Millennial edition also abbreviated these texts or set them in small type. The selection was guided by the question whether the text contains any new legal (including procedural) measure, or whether it is politically important (e.g. reflecting stages in the tug-of-war between different noble and aristocratic factions, or the gradual restriction of the liberty of peasants, and so on). According to these criteria:

(1) some decreta are altogether given only in Latin;

(2) the rest of the decreta is presented in the usual bi-lingual form but those paragraphs that repeat earlier laws were left out, and marked not only—as in previous volumes—when they are verbatim identical to earlier articles by the = sign, but, this time, also when they are essentially the same as texts already edited elsewhere, containing only stylistic changes; these are marked by the ≈ sign indicating “similar to”; or

(3) even in the translated texts, several overly verbose articles were dropped and instead something of a regest is offered, summarizing their content in a sentence in English and printing their tituli (even though these were mostly added by later editors) in Latin.

 

2 The Latin text

This edition presents, as mentioned above, a hitherto partly unpublished vulgate redaction of the Latin text of the laws, based largely on the transcriptions made by Ferenc Döry. Döry followed, as a rule, the best and oldest available manuscripts: for St. Stephen, the twelfth-century Codex Admont; for Ladislas and Coloman, mainly the Codex Thuróczi; and for the decreta from the thirteenth century onward either the rare originals or the best available medieval transcripts. It is, of course, not certain that there are not more copies in provincial or private archives. For the Golden Bull of 1222 and the decretum of 1514, however, newly established texts have been adduced, prepared by Géza Érszegi, who collated all available copies. As mentioned above, the law of 1411 is also in a new redaction. At some points, where Döry’s reading does not agree with those of the older editions, the disagreement has been noted. In some instances all surviving texts are so corrupt of incomplete that, in order to render some sense, reconstructions proposed by other historians have been consulted. Manuscript variants are included only in the texts from the Jagellonian age (1490–1526). For the preceding centuries the DRH edition of Bónis et al. can be consulted.

DRMH 5, the Tripartium, followed the first printed edition of 1517 (Vienna: Singrenius) tacitly correcting obvious misprints.

The presentation of the texts conforms to the prevailing norms of modern scholarship. Rubrics inserted by early modern editors have been dropped, with the exception of chapter headings in some of the law books of Stephen and Ladislas and in a few later decreta, which may be original. (Exceptions made for the Jagiellonian age are discussed above.) The subdivision of laws into articles is an old CJH tradition and rests implicitly on medieval bases, even though the numbering is modern. The traditional numbering of either the CJH or the first editors has been, as a rule, followed to facilitate scholarly consultation. Differences between this edition and previous ones, if significant, are listed in the concordances following the respective texts. The orthography has been normalized to the usage of u and v, i, and j; e caudata (which prevails for æ) is given as e.

 

  1. The English translation.

This posed more problems than translations usually do. Every translation implies interpretation and thus a certain amount of change and distortion. The editors had to face at least two additional problems. First, the Latin text was in many cases clearly faulty or garbled and had never been properly amended. During the past five hundred years learned editors of the CJH put their hands to the text and did their best to make sense of it. They did so, however, in the light of a living Hungarian legal tradition, that is, of the customary law of the noble natio Hungarica of much later centuries. We attempt to bring the texts as we have it, even if they do not correspond with the expectations of lawyers and legal historians of a later age, or contained contradictions and obscurities. The editors have noted their doubts and problems, as well as earlier scholarly comments in the notes, but have attempted to render the text of the ancient originals as faithfully as possible. This brought them to the second major quandary. It is obvious that medieval institutional and legal terms in the English language originated in the historical realities of the British Isles. Here, however, concepts that grew out of an entirely different historical experience had to be rendered in English words. Many of our learned colleagues in such cases decide to retain the “original” Latin–which may be precise, but awkward. One still might ask, however, how “original” these Latin terms were. Surely medieval Hungarians named offices and institutions in the vernacular and these terms were translated into Latin by the learned clerks who composed the written record—therefore, only their Magyar version, if known, would be truly original. But deploying a large number of Latin or Hungarian technical terms on each page of English text would not have helped the non-specialist reader. Therefore, the editors attempted in almost all cases to coin a term that appears to be a reasonable English equivalent of the Latin of the laws (and, as far as one can presume, of the vernacular original). Finally, only the translation of the word comes remained “unsolved”: since is does not imply noble title (there was, with some exceptions, no titled nobility in medieval Hungary) nor the kind of royal officer of Carolingian-type “count,” the editors decided to give the Hungarian version, ispán, that seems to have designated first the great men of the realm, later royal officers heading the counties.[10] The difficulties with another enigmatic term, regnicola (verbatim: inhabitant of the realm), that seems to have meant landowning freemen, later noblemen, led to an awkward but perhaps reasonable formulation: they are referred to (in the earlier Middle Ages) as “man/men of the realm,” and later as “gentleman/en of the realm.” Other technical terms are explained in the notes.

All in all, the translation aims at the maximum feasible authenticity, bearing in mind that not all readers will wish to enter into the intricacies of local development. The task was to prepare a readable and informative text, not necessarily elegant, but faithful, and by adding notes and glosses, to enable the reader to derive more precise understanding.

 

 

4 The apparatus criticus

As can be expected in a project that was accomplished across several decades with a number of collaborators, the annotations and prefaces to the texts are slightly diverse in every section, even if a certain uniformity was attempted. Every law opens with a preface on its background and textual problems, then lists the manuscripts (used by Döry and usually re-checked by the editors) as MSS, the previous editions (EDD) and a selected list of relevant scholarly literature (LIT). Annotations on historical matters, technical terms, and personal data as well as cross-references to earlier or later legislation are added only to the English translation.
The annotations are composed so that every law can be read in itself, thus repetitions are frequent.

No systematic attempt was made during the preparation of the present edition fully to update the literature in the prefaces and the notes from the printed DRMH, but some recent titles have been added.

Budapest, 2019.                                                                 János M. Bak

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

THE HOUSE OF ÁRPÁD (1000-1301)

The laws of King St. Stephen I of HUNGARY (1000–1038) Book I……

THE LAWS OF KING st STEPHEN I OF HUNGARY (1000–1038) Book II……………..

  CANONS OF THE SYNOD OF SZABOLCS 20 MAY 1092= Laws of King St      Ladislas I (1077-95) [“Book I”]……………………………………………………..

THE LAWS OF KING St LADISLAS I OF HUNGARY (1077–1095 [BOOK II] …………..

THE LAWS OF KING st LADISLAS I OF HUNGARY (1077–1095 [BOOK III] ………

THE LAW OF KING COLOMAN OF HUNGARY (1095–1116)…………………………….

STATUTES OF KING COLOMAN OF HUNGARY FOR THE JEWS (1095–1116) ………

THE GOLDEN BULL OF KING ANDREW ii OF HUNGARY  (1205–35) 1222………….

CONFIRMATION OF THE GOLDEN BULL OF KING ANDREW II OF HUNGARY (1205–35),             1231………………………………………………………………………………………

PRIVILEGE FOR THE LESSER NOBLES BY KING ANDREW II of HUNGARY (1205– 35)1267…………………………………………………………………………………

CORONATION DECRETUM OF KING ANDREW III OF HUNGARY (1290-1301),

              1 SEPTEMBER,1290…………………………………………………………

LAW OF KING ANDREW III OF HUNGARY (1290-1301) 5 AUGUST, 1298……………

 

DIVERSE DYNASTIES (1301-1490)

LAW OF KING CHARLES I OF HUNGARY (1301-42) OF ca. 1320……………

MANDATE OF KING CHARLES I OF HUNGARY (1301-42), 10 August, 1324 …………

PRIVILEGE OF KING CHARLES I OF HUNGARY (1301-42) OF 31 October, 1328……

Charter on cameral contracts of King Charles I of Hungary (1301-42),             1342…………………………………………………………………………………………

DECRETUM UNICUM OF KING LOUIS I OF HUNGARY (1342-82) 11 December,             1351….…………………………………………………………………………………..

LAW OF QUEEN MARY OF HUNGARY (1382–7) OF 22 JUNE 1384………………………

LAW OF QUEEN MARY OF HUNGARY  (1205–35) OF 14 NOVEMBER 1385……

DECRETUM OF THE DIET OF HUNGARY IN 1386 (after 27 August)………………

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) (October 1397)……………….

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437), 6 April 1404 (Placetum regium).

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) OF 21 December 1404……..

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437 OF 15 APRIL 1405…………..

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) OF 31 AUGUST, 1405………….

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) 1411 (before 18 March)……

KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY’S Proposition TO THE ROYAL COUNCIL 1415

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) 23 JULY, 1421……………………

ORDINANCE OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) 17 March 1427 A……

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) 17 March 1427 B……………..

KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY’s Propositions on defense of c. 1432/1433

LAW OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) OF 8 March 1435 (Decretum             maius)……………………………………………………………………………………

EDICT OF KING SIGISMUND OF HUNGARY (1387-1437) OF 12 MARCH, 1435…………..

LAW OF KING ALBERT (1437-39) OF HUNGARY OF 29 MAY, 1439…………………….

Compilation OF LAWS IN HUNGARY (BEFORE 1440)…………………………………

CORONATION PATENT OF KING WLADISLAS I (14440-44) OF HUNGARY, 20 JULY,             1440……………………………………………………………………………………

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS I OF HUNGARY (1440-44) OF 1443 (March or April)…..

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS I OF HUNGARY (1440-44) OF 18 April, 1444……………….

LAW OF THE DIET OF HUNGARY OF 7 MAY, 1445………………………………………….

LAW OF THE DIET OF HUNGARY OF 13 JUNE, 1446………………………………………..

LAW OF THE DIET OF HUNGARY OF 25 MARCH, 1447…………………………………….

LAW OF KING LADISLAS V OF HUNGARY (1440-57) OF 29 JANUARY, 1453………

LAW OF KING LADISLAS V OF HUNGARY OF 25 JANUARY, 1454……………………….

LAW OF REGENT MICHAEL SZILÁGYI  OF HUNGARY ([24 JANUARY] 1458)………….

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 1458 [JUNE 8]…..

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 5 JANUARY, 1459……………………………………………………………………………………………

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 28 MAY, 1462….

CORONATUON DECREE OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90)        OF 6 APRIL, 1464………………………………………………………………………..

REGISTER  OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 1467    [BEFORE 1APRIL]………………..… …………………………………………………..

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 18 SEPTEMBER,             1471……………………………………………………………………………………

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 2 OCTOBER,     1474 …………………………….

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 29 MARCH, 1478

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 15 JULY, 1481

LAW OF KING MATTHIAS I (CORVINUS) OF HUNGARY (1458-90) OF 25 JANUARY,     1486  (Decretum maius)………………………

 

JAGELLONIAN HUNGARY

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS II OF HUNGARY (1490-1516) OF 1492  (2 FEBRUARY ?)……………………………………

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS II OF HUNGARY (1490-1516) OF 1495……………..

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS II OF HUNGARY (1490-1516) OF 1498 (2 JUNE)…..

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS II OF HUNGARY (1490-1516) OF MAY 8, 1500…..

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS II OF HUNGARY (1490-1516) OF MAY 8, 1504…..

DIETAL DECISION UNDER KING WLADISLAS II OF HUNGARY (1490-1516) OF 1507

LAW OF KING WLADISLAS II OF HUNGARY (1490-1516) OF 1514…….

DIETAL DECISION UNDER KING LOUIS II OF HUNGARY (1516-26) 1518 BÁCS……

DECISION OF THE DIET UNDER KING LOUIS II OF HUNGARY (1516-26)  IN 1518    TOLNA…………………………

DIETAL DECISION UNDER KING LOUIS II OF HUNGARY (1516-26) OF 1521……

DIETAL DECISION UNDER KING LOUIS II OF HUNGARY (1516-26) OF 1523……

DECISIONS OF THE DIET UNDER KING LOUIS II OF HUNGARY (1516-26),             1524/5……………………………………..

DECISIONS OF THE DIET UNDER KING LOUIS II OF HUNGARY (1516-26), 1525 (IN       HATVAN)………………………

LAW OF KING LOUIS II OF HUNGARY (1516-26) OF 1526……………………………

Stephen Werbőczy’s Tripartitum (1517)

Abbreviations…………………………………………………

Martyn Rady, Stephen Werbőczy and the Triparitum …………………………………..

Tripartitum opus iuris consuetudinarii inclyti regniHungariæ per magistrum Stephanum de Werbewcz personalis præsentie regiæ maiestatis locum tenentem accuratissime editum

Prologus……………………

Pars I………………………………

Pars II……………………………….

Pars III……………………………..

Appendix…………………………..

The customary laws of the renowned kingdom of Hungary: A work in three parts rendered most accurately by master Stephen Werbőczy locumtenens of the personal presence of the royal majesty

Prologue…………………………………………….

Part I……………………………………………….

Part II…………………………………………………

Part III…………………………………………………

Appendix………………………………………………..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Of this ambitious project, only the five volumes of DRMH and the edition of a few early Russian laws materialized.

[2] See: György Bónis, “Begriff, Wirkung und gesellschaftliche Rolle des Dekrets,”in Idem and Vera Bácskai eds. Decreta regni Hungariae. Gesetze and Verordnungen Ungarns 1301-1457 (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1976), pp. 15—31 and Susanna Teke, “Begriff des Dekrets und seine gesellschaftliche Rolle zur Zeit von König Matthias,” in: György Bónis with Géza Érszegi and Zsuzsanna Teke, eds., Decreta regni Hungariae. Gesetze and Verordnungen Ungarns 1458-1490 (ibid., 1989), pp. 11—40.

[3] The most frequently used, so-called “Millennial,” edition is Magyar Törvénytár: Codex Juris Hungarici, Dezső Márkus et al. eds., Budapest: Franklin, 1896 ff.

[4] See Andor Csizmadia, “Previous Editions of the Laws of Hungary,”in DRMH 21, pp. xvii–xxxiii..

[5] Stefan Ladislaus, Endlicher, Rerum Hungaricarum monumenta Arpadiana. Sankt Gallen: Scheitlin, 1849.

[6] A. Kollar,. De originibus et usu perpetuo potestatis legislationis circa sacra apostolica regum Ungariae libellus singularis. Vienna: Trattner, 1764. The“Admonitions” were most recently edited by László Havas, Sancti Stephani primi regis Hungariae libellus de institutione morum: sive admonitio spiritualis, Debrecen: Debreceni Tudományegyetem 2004; better than Josephus. Balogh, in: Emericus Szentpéteri , ed, Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum tempore ducum regumque stirpis Arpadiane gestarum, vol. 2,. (Budapest: Academia Litt.,1938;  repr. Budapest: Nap, 2001) pp. 611–28. On this “mirror of princes,” see Jenő Szücs “The Admonitions of St. Stephen and his state,” New Hungarian Quarterly 29. 112 (1988): 89–97, with English translation of the text, by James Ross. Sweeney and János M. Bak, ibid., 98-105.

[7] See Nora Berend, “Forging the Cuman Law, forging an identity,” in: Manufacturing a Past for the Present: Forgery and Authenticity in Medievalist Texts and Objects in Nineteenth-Century Europe, János M. Bak, Patrick Geary, Gábor Klaniczay, eds. (Leiden: Brill, 2014), pp. 109—28.

[8] Pál Engel, “Az ‘1300 körüli’ tanácsi határozat keletkezéséhez’ [On the origin of the decision in council of ‘c. 1300’], now in Idem, Honor, vár, ispánság: Válogatott tanulmányok, ed. Enikő Csukovics, (Budapest: Osiris, 2003), pp. 638-48.

[9] Norbert C. Tóth, “A nádori cikkelyek keletkezése,” [Origin of the Palatinal Articles] in: Rendiség és parlamentarizmus Magyarországon a kezdetektől 1918-ig. Dobszay Tamás et al. eds.,(Budapest: Országgyűlés—Argumentum, 2014), pp. 36–45.

[10] That the word was seen as specific for this Hungarian officer is suggested by the fact that in German it was translated not as Graf but as Gespan. Pipo Scolari, ispán of several counties in Hungary, was called in Florence Pipo Spano..